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Research Data

Chelated Minerals Research:

Cerewski, F.L., Ridlington, J.W., in Hurley, L.S., Keen, C.L., Lonnerdal, B. and Rucker, R.B., Eds: Trace Elements in Man and Animals, Plenum, New York, N.Y., 1988.

Linder, M.C., ed: Nutritional Biochemistry And Metabolism with Clinical Applications, Second Edition, Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, Connecticut, 1991.

Lehninger, A.L., Nelson and D.L., Cox, M.M., Principles of Biochemistry, Second Edition, Worth Publishers, New York, N.Y., 1993

Mertz, W., ed: Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, Fifth Edition, Vol. 1 & 2, Academic Press, New York, N.Y., 1986

Scriver, C.R., Beaudet, A.L., Sly, W. S., and Valle, D., eds: The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, Vol. 1,2,3, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1995

Voet, D. and Voet J.G., Biochemistry, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1995

Valentine, J.I., Campaion, D.S., Schluchter, M.D. and Massey, F.J., in Howell, J. McC., metal, eds: Trace Element Metabolism in Man and Animals. Canberra: Australian Academy of Science, 1981



Omega-3 Fatty Acids Research

Adams, P. B., et al. “Arachidonic Acid to Eicosapentaenoic Acid Ratio in Blood Correlates Positively with Clinical Symptoms of Depression.” Lipids 31 (1996):S157-S161.

Aillhaud, G., et al. “Temporal Changes in Dietary Fats: Role of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Excessive Adipose Tissue Development and Relationship to Obesity.” Progress in Lipid Research (2006)

Agostoni, C., et al. “DHA in Pregnancy Benefits Child Development” Pediatrics Research 54 (2003): 292-93.

Albert, C. “Fish Oil: An Appetizing to Anti-Arrhythmic Drugs?” Lancet 363 (2004):1142-13.

Albert, C. M., et al. “Blood Levels of Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids and the Risk of Sudden Death.” New England Journal of Medicine 346 (15) (2002):113-18.

American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). “Experts Concerned Over Unhealthy ‘Fat Ratio in American Diets.” New Release, AICR, 2004.

Auestad, n. et al. “Visual, Cognitive, and Language Assessments at 39 Months: A Follow up Study of Children Fed Formulas Containing Long-chain polyunsaturated Fatty Acids to 1 year of Age.” Pediatrics 112 (3) (2003): e177-e183.

Berson, E. L., et al. “Further Evaluation of Docosahexaenoic Acid in patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa Receiving Vitamin A Treatment: subgroup Analyses.” Archives of Ophthalmology 122 (2004():1306-14.

Birch, E. E., et al. “Visual Maturation of Term Infants Fed Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Supplemented or Control Formula for 12 Months.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81 (2005): 871-89.

Bouwstra, H., et al. “Long- Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have a Positive Effect on the Quality of General Movements of Healthy Term Infants.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78 (2003): 313-18.

Burgess, J.R., et al. “Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(supp.) (2000): 327S-330-S.

Calo, L., et al. “N-3 Fatty Acids for the Prevention of Artrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 45 (10) (2005): 1723-28.

Cheruku, S. R., et al. “Higher Maternal Plasma Docosahexaenoic Acid During Pregnancy Is Associated with More Mature Neonatal Sleep –State Patterning.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76 (3) (2002): 608-13.

Christensen. J. H., et al. “Heart Rate Variability and Fatty Acid Content of Blood Cell Membranes: A Dose-Response Study with n-3 Fatty Acids.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (1999): 33-37.

Christensen, J.H., et al. “N-3 Fatty Acids and Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.” Europace 7 (2005): 338-44.

Cleland, L.G., et al. “Linoleate Inhibits EPA Incorporation from Dietary Fish Oil Supplements in Human Subjects.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55 (1992): 395-99.

Cleland, L.G., et al. “Fish Oil and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Anti-inflammatory and Collateral Health Benefits.” Journal of Rheumatology 27(10) (200):2305-7

Cunnane, S.C. “Problems with Essential Fatty Acids: Time for a Paradigm?” Progress in Lipid Research 42 (2003):544-68.

De Caterina, R., et al. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and the Regulation of Expression of Endothelial Pro-Atherogenic and Pro-Inflammatory Genes.” Journal of Membrane Biology 206 (2005): 103-16

Decsi, T., et al. “N-3 Fatty Acids and Pregnancy Outcomes.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 8 (2005):161-66.

De Lorgeril, M., et. al. “Dietary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease: Focus on Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acid Balance.” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 92 (2003): 57-73.

De Lorgeril, M., et al. “Dietary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease: The Lyon Heart Study and After.” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 95 (2005): 103-14.

De Lorgeril, M., et al. “Use and Misuse of Dietary Fatty Acids for the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease.” Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 44 (2004); 283-88.

Dubnov, G., et al. “Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Coronary Artery Disease: The Pros and Cons.” Current Atherosclerosis Reports 6 (2004): 441-46.

Ebbesson, S.O., et al. “Diabetes Is Related to Fatty Acid Metabolism Imbalance in Eskimos.” International Journal of Circumpolar Health 58(2) (1999): 108-19.

Forsyth, J. S., et al. “Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Infant Formula and Blood Pressure in Later Childhood: Follow up of Randomized Controlled Trail.” British Medical Journal 326 (2003):953-57

Freeman, et al. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Evidence Basis for Treatment and Future Research in Psychiatry.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67 (2006):1954-67.

Geppert, J., et al. “Docahexaenoic Acid Supplementation in Vegetarians Effectively Increases Omega-3 Index: A Randomized Trail.” Lipids 8 (2005):807-14. Haag, M., et al., “Dietary Fats, Fatty Acids and Insulin Resistance: Short Review of a Multifaceted Connection.” Medical Science Monitor 11 (12) (2005): RA359-367.

Hakkarainen, R., et al. “Is Low Dietary Intake Omega-3 Fatty Acids Associated with Depression?” American Journal of Psychiatry 67 (2006):567-69.

Hallahan, B., et al. “Essential Fatty Acids and Mental Health.” British Journal of Psychiatry 186 (2005): 275-77.

Hamazaki, K., et al. “The Effect of w-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Phospholipids on Blood Catecholamine Concentrations in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trail.” Nutrition 21 (2005):705-10.

Hamazaki. K., et al. “The Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Aggression in Young Adults.” Journal of Clinical Investigations 97(4) (1996): 1129-34.

Harbige, L.S. “Fatty Acids, the Immune Response, and Autoimmunity: A Question of n-6 Essentially and the Balance Between n-6 and n-3.” Lipids 38 (2003): 323-41

Hardman, W.F. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids to Augment Cancer Therapy.” Journal of Nutrition 132 (2002): 3508S-3512S. Harris, W.S. “Fish Oil Supplementation: Evidence for Health Benefits.” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 71 (3) (2004): 208-18.

Harris, W.S., et al. “The Omega-3 Index: A New Predictor for Cardiac Mortality?” ISSFAL Newsletter (International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids) 11 (2) (2004)

Helland, I. B., et al. “Maternal Supplements with Very-Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids During Pregnancy and Lactation Augments Children’s IQ at 4 years of Age.” Pediatrics 111 (2003): e39-e44.

Hibbelen, J., et al. “Healthy Intakes of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids: Estimations Considering World-wide Diversity.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (2006): 1483s-1493s.

Hirayama, S., et al. “Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid- Containing Food Administration on Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58 (2004):24-31.

Innis, S. M., “Perinatal Biochemistry and Physiology of Long –Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.” Journal of Pediatrics 143 (2003): S1-S8.

IOM. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2002/2005.

Kang, J.X. “Achieving Balance in the Omega-6/Omega-3 ration Through Nutrigenomics: Fat-1 Transgenic Convert Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acids.” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 92-98.

Kang, J.X., et al. “Prevention of fatal Cardiac Arrhythmias by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (supp.) (2000) 202S.-207S.

Kark, J.D., et al. “Adipose Tissue n-6 Fatty Acids and Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Population Consuming Diet High Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77 (2003): 796-802.

Kelley, D.S., et al. “Regulation of Human Immune and inflammatory Responses by Dietary Fatty Acids.” Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 50 (2005): 101-38.

Kitajka, K., et al. “Effects of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Brain Gene Expression.” Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences 101 (2004):10931-36. Kompra, T., et al. “Arachidonic Acid Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Contents in Meat Selected Poultry and Fish Species in Relation to Dietary Fat Sources.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (2005):6804-12.

Kris-Etherton, P.M., et al. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: New Recommendations from the American Heart Association.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 23 (2003): 151-52.

Lands, W.E.M. “Learning How Membrane Fatty Acids Affect Cardiovascular Integrity.” Journal of Membrane Biology 206 (2005): 75-83.

Larque, E., et al. “Perinatal Supply and Metabolism of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Importance for the Early Development of the Nervous System.” Annals of the New York Academy of Science 967 (2002): 299-310.

Larso, S.C., et al. “Dietary long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Cancer: A Review of Potential Mechanisms.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79(2004): 935-45.

Leaf, A. “Dietary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease: The Lyon Diet Heart Study.” Circulation 99 (1999):733-35.

Leaf, A. et al. “Clinical Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mechanism of Prevention of Arrhythmias by n-3 Fish Oils.” Circulation 107 (2003): 151-52.

Leaf, A., et al. “Prevention of Fatal Arrhythmias in High-Risk Subjects by Fish Oil n-3 Fatty Acid Intake.” Circulation 107 (2003):2762-68.

Logan, A. C. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Major Depression: A Primer for the Mental Health Professional.” Lipids in Health and Disease 3 (2004): 25.

Lukiw, W. et al. “A Role for Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Neuroprotection D1 in Neural Cell Survival and Alzheimer Disease.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 115 (10) (2005): 2774-83.

MacLean, C.H., et al. “Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cognitive Function with Aging, Dementia, and Neurological Diseases.” Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No.114) prepared by the Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center, under Contract No. 290-02-0003), AHRQ Publication No. 05-E011-2. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, February 2005.

MacLean, C. H., et al. “Systematic Review of the Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (2005):611-19.

Matsuyama, W. et al. “Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Markers in COPD.” Chest 128(2005):3817-27.

Meyer, B.J., et al. “Dietary Intakes and Food Sources of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.” Lipids 38 (4) (2003): 391-98.

Miljanovic, B., et al. “Relation between Dietary n-3 and Fatty Acids and Clinically Diagnosed Eye Syndrome in Women” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (2005): 887-93.

Mozaffarian, D., et al. “Effect of Fish Oil on Heart Rate in Humans: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trails.” Circulation 112 (2005): 1945-52.

Nailwaiko, K., et al. “Effects of Fish Oil on the Central Nervous System: A New Potential Antidepressant?” Nutritional Neuroscience 7 (2) (2004); 91-99.

Nemets, H., et al. “Omega-3 Treatment of Childhood Depression: A Controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study.” American Journal of Psychiatry 163 (6) (2006):1098-1100.

Nestel, P., et al. “The n-3 Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Increase Systemic Arterial Compliance in Humans.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76 (2002): 326-30.

Oddy, W.H., et al. “Ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Childhood Asthma.” Journal of Asthma 41(3) (2004):319-26

Okuyama, H., et al. “Cancers Common in the USA Are Stimulated by 6 Fatty Acids and Large Amounts of Animal Fats, but Suppressed by Fatty Acids and Cholesterol.” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 96 (2007): 143-49.

Okuyama, H., et al. “Dietary Fatty Acids: The n-6/n-3 Balance and Chronic Elderly Diseases, Excess Linoleic Acid and Relative n-3 Deficiency Syndrome in Japan.” Progress in Lipid Research 35 (4) (1997):409-57.

Okuyama, H. ed. “Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease from the Cholesterol Hypothesis to Omega-6/Omega-3 Balance. “World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 96 (2007):1-168.

Peat, J. K., et al. “Three- Year Outcomes if Dietary Fatty Acid Modification and House Dust Mite Reduction in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 114 (2004):807-13.

Peet, M. “A Dose-Ranging Study the Effects of Ethyl-Eicosapentaenoate in Patients with Ongoing Depression Despite Apparently Adequate Treatment with Standard Drugs.” Archives of General Psychiatry 59 (2002): 913-19.

Romano, C., et al. “Usefulness of w-3 Fatty acid Supplementation in Addition to Mesalazine in Maintaining Remission in Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.” World Journal of Gastroenterology 11 (45) (2005): 7118-21.

Richardson, A.J., et al. “A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Effects of Supplementation with Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids on ADHD-Related Symptoms in Children with Specific Learning Difficulties.”Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 26 (2002); 233-39.

Richardson, A.J. et al. “Fatty Acid Deficiency Signs Predict the Severity of Reading and Related Difficulties in Dyslexic Children” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids63 (1/2) (2000):69-74.

Richardson, A.J., et al. “The Oxford-Durham Study: A Randomized, Controlled Trail of Dietary Supplementation with fatty Acids in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.” Pediatrics 115 (2005):1360-66.

Sehran, C. N., et al. “Resolvins, Doscosatrienes, and Neuroprotectins, Novel omega-3 Derived Mediators, and Their Aspirin-Triggered Endogenous Epimers: An Overview of Their Protective Roles.” Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators 73 (2004): 155-72.

Simopoulos, A.P. “Evolutionary Aspects of Omega-3 Acids in the Food Supply.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 60 (1999):421-29.

Simopoulos and Cleland (eds.) “Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acid Ratio: The Scientific Evidence.” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 92 (2003)

Solfrizzi, V., et al. “Dietary Fatty Acids Intake: Possible Role in Cognitive Decline and Dementia. “Experimental Gerontology 40 (2005): 257-70.

Song, C. et al. “Effects of Dietary n-3 or n-6 Fatty Acids on Interleukin-1B Induced Anxiety, Stress, and Inflammatory Responses in Rats.” Journal of Lipid Research 44 (2003): 1984-91.

Stoll, A. L., et al. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Bipolar Disorders.”Archives of General Psychiatry 56 (1999): 407-12.

Weiss, L.A., et al. “Ratio of n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acids and Bone Mineral Density in Older Adults: The Rancho Bernardo Study.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81 (2005): 934-38.

Yehuda, S. “Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio and Brain-Related Functions.” World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 92 (2003): 37-56.

Yehuda, S., et al. “The Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Restoring the Aging Neuronal Membrane.” Neurobiology of Aging 23 (2002):843-53.

Zimmer, L., et al. “The Dopamine Mesocorticolimbic Pathway Is Affected by Deficiency in n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75 (2002): 662-67.



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Konjac Health Benefits

  • Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial
  • Evidence for intermolecular binding between deacetylated acetan and the glucomannan konjac mannan
  • Degradation of konjac glucomannan by enzymes in human feces and formation of short-chain fatty acids by intestinal anaerobic bacteria
  • Isolation and characterization of an active mannanase-producing anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium tertium KT-5A, from lotus soil
  • Purification and characterization of konjac glucomannan degrading enzyme from anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, Clostridium butyricum-Clostridium beijerinckii group
  • Effect of short-term ingestion of konjac glucomannan on serum cholesterol in healthy men
  • Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Conservatory


Konjac and Health Research


  • Konjac-Mannan and American ginsing: emerging alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. {pdf format}
  • Long-term effects of dietary fiber supplementation on serum glucose and lipoprotein levels in diabetic rats fed a high cholesterol diet.
  • Dietary fiber in the dietetic therapy of diabetes mellitus. Experimental data with purified glucomannans
  • Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fiber from Konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial. {pdf format}
  • Effect of Konjac food on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes.
  • Effects of long-term high-fiber diet on macrovascular changes and lipid and glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic SD rats.


  • Effect of short-term ingestion of konjac glucomannan on serum cholesterol in healthy men.
  • Cholesterol reduction by glucomannan and chitosan is mediated by changes in cholesterol absorption and bile acid and fat excretion in rats.
  • Comparison between physiological effects of konjac-glucomannan and propionate in baboons fed "Western" diets.
  • Low levels of viscous hydrocolloids lower plasma cholesterol in rats primarily by impairing cholesterol absorption.
  • Antisteatotic effects of four kinds of dietary fibers in rats fed on high cholesterol diet: a preliminary morphometric analysis
  • Effects of dietary konjac mannan on serum and liver cholesterol levels and biliary bile acid composition in hamsters.
  • Influences of refined konjac meal on the levels of tissue lipids and the absorption of four minerals in rats.


  • Evaluation of the action of glucomannan on metabolic parameters and on the sensation of satiation in overweight and obese patients
  • Childhood obesity treatment: double blinded trial on dietary fibres (glucomannan) versus placebo.
  • The use of highly purified glucomannan-based fibers in childhood obesity
  • Chronic use of glucomannan in the dietary treatment of severe obesity
  • Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study.


  • Effect of the dietary fiber glucomannan on chronic constipation in neurologically impaired children.
  • A clinical study of the use of a combination of glucomannan with lactulose in the constipation of pregnancy
  • Action of glucomannans on complaints in patients affected with chronic constipation: a multicentric clinical evaluation.
  • Mouth-to-cecum transit time in patients affected by chronic constipation: effect of glucomannan.

Colonic Pathology

  • Purification and characterization of konjac glucomannan degrading enzyme from anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, Clostridium butyricum-Clostridium beijerinckii group.
  • Efficacy of rifaximin in the treatment of symptomatic diverticular disease of the colon. A multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
  • Use of glucomannan dietary fiber in changes in intestinal habit
  • Efficacy of rifaximin on symptoms of uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon. A pilot multicentre open trial. Diverticular Disease Study Group.


  • Glucomannan prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in patients with previous gastric surgery.
  • Dietary fiber and OGTT: blood sugar variations after administration of a new purified glucomannane
  • Long-term animal feeding trial of the refined konjac meal. II. Effects of the refined konjac meal on the aging of the brain, liver, and cardiovascular tissue cells in rats.
  • Inhibitory effect of refined Amorphophallus konjac on MNNG-induced lung cancers in mice
  • Immunologic clinical evaluation of a biological response modifier, AM3, in the treatment of childhood infectious respiratory pathology